Snow Crab: Totti, CC BY-SA 4.0 , via Wikimedia Commons

Snow Crab: Everything you Need to know About Chionoecetes opilio

What is Snow crab?

The snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) is a commercially valuable species that thrive in the cold waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Not only do they provide substantial economic advantages to countries like the United States, Canada, Russia and Japan but are also a crucial component of marine ecosystems. In this article, we will delve into every aspect of these remarkable creatures.

Biology and Morphology:

Snow crabs, which are part of the Oregoniidae family, feature five pairs of robust legs. The first two sets have enlarged chelae (claws) for both feeding and protection; adult males tend to possess larger claws than their female counterparts – an example of sexual dimorphism. To effectively shield themselves from predators, these creatures boast a hard exoskeleton made up entirely of chitin. As they outgrow it over time, snow crabs go through a moulting process that enables them to shed their old shell and produce a new one with more space for growth.

Distribution and Habitat:

Snow crabs are known to roam the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, from the Bering Sea all the way up to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Their preferred habitats include deep waters between 90-400 meters with muddy or sandy bottoms. Though snow crabs can tolerate a variety of temperatures, they feel most at home in climates that range from 1-5°C.

Life Cycle and Reproduction:

The life cycle of snow crabs is multifaceted and entails a range of stages, ranging from larvae to full-grown adults. During mating season, male crabs will deposit their sperm within the female’s seminal receptacle. Following this step, the females lay eggs externally and carry them securely on her ventral appendage for many months as they await fertilization.

After they hatch, the newly-born larvae progress through a series of planktonic stages: zoea and megalopa, before finally settling at the bottom of the ocean where they morph into juvenile crabs. Juveniles then develop over several moults until reaching sexual maturity in 5-7 years for males and 3-5 years for females; snow crab life expectancy is 10 to 14 years.

Ecological Role:

Snow crabs are invaluable members of their aquatic ecosystems, as they hunt and scavenge for prey like polychaetes, mollusks, crustaceans and dead organisms. Snow crabs fall victim to predators such as marine mammals, larger fish species and even other crustaceans – making them a crucial link in the oceanic food web.

Human Impact and Conservation Challenges:

Boasting a substantial contribution to the economic well-being of several coastal towns, snow crab fisheries have recently become quite profitable. Unfortunately, this has resulted in rampant overfishing with population numbers declining drastically in some areas. With climate change and ocean acidification further influencing habitat quality, prey availability, and reproductive success rates – it is clear that measures must be taken to protect the species.

To guarantee the sustainability of snow crab fisheries, conservation initiatives such as catch quotas, temporary fishing closures and marine protected zones have been established. Nonetheless, further research on this species’ biology, ecology and human activities’ effects must be conducted to construct efficient preservation strategies.

When is snow crab season?

The snow crab season differs based on the area and local laws that guarantee their population is managed carefully. Generally, it begins in late autumn and runs until early spring when crabs are more plentiful during colder months.

For example:

  1. In Eastern Canada, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador, the snow crab season usually starts around April and can last until June or July, depending on the fishing area and quotas.
  2. In Alaska, the snow crab season typically begins in October and can continue through January, depending on the quotas and the area being fished.
  3. In the Bering Sea, the snow crab fishing season often starts in January and ends in May or June.

Catching snow crabs is typically done using commercial fishing methods, as they inhabit cold, deep waters that make recreational fishing challenging.

Are snow crabs good to eat?

Snow crabs are a culinary delight, renowned for their succulent and sweet flavour. With its delectable taste and tender texture, it’s no wonder that snow crab meat has become an international delicacy among seafood connoisseurs. Whether served in stews or as the star of your dish, you can be sure to please even the most discerning palates with this exquisite crustacean.

In addition to being delicious, snow crabs offer various health benefits due to their nutritional content:

  1. High-quality protein: Snow crab meat is an excellent source of lean protein, which is essential for building and maintaining muscle mass, supporting immune function, and repairing tissues in the body.
  2. Low in fat and calories: Snow crab is low in fat and calories compared to other protein sources, making it a good choice for those watching their weight or following a calorie-restricted diet.
  3. Rich in vitamins and minerals: Snow crabs are a good source of several essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B12, which is vital for nervous system function and red blood cell formation, and selenium, an important antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage.
  4. Omega-3 fatty acids: While snow crabs have lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to some other seafood options like salmon, they still provide some of these essential nutrients, which are beneficial for heart health and brain function.

How to cook snow crab

Snow crab is a delicious and nutritious seafood option that is relatively easy to prepare. The following is a step-by-step guide to cooking snow crab:

Thawing snow crab

For the best quality and taste, thaw your frozen snow crab with utmost care. Place it in a watertight bag or vessel then immerse it in cold water for half an hour to an hour, making sure you change the liquid every 15 minutes. You can also let it defrost in the fridge which should take 8-12 hours; however, avoid utilizing hot water or microwaves as these techniques tend to result in unevenly cooked crustaceans with less flavour than desired.

Preparing the crab

Before you prepare a snow crab for consumption, it’s important to wash and clean the crustacean. Start by rinsing the creature with cold water; use a brush if required to scrub away any dirt or particles. Once done, utilize kitchen shears to remove the sharp points of its legs so it is easier to handle and eat.

Cooking methods

There are several ways to cook snow crab, including steaming, boiling, baking, and grilling. Below are brief instructions for each method:

How to steam snow crab

Fill a large pot with 1-2 inches of water and place a steaming basket or rack inside.

Bring the water to a boil, then add the crab legs to the steaming basket, ensuring they do not touch the water.

Cover the pot and steam for 5-7 minutes, or until the crab is heated through and the meat is opaque.

How to boil snow crab

Fill a large pot with water, adding 1 tablespoon of salt per quart of water.

Bring the water to a rolling boil, then carefully add the crab legs to the pot.

Boil the crab legs for 5-7 minutes, or until the meat is opaque and heated through.

How to bake snow crab

Preheat your oven to 350°F (175°C).

Arrange the crab legs on a baking sheet, then brush them with melted butter or olive oil.

Bake the crab legs for 8-10 minutes, or until the meat is opaque and heated through.

How to Grill snow crab

Preheat your grill to medium-high heat.

Lightly brush the crab legs with melted butter or olive oil.

Place the crab legs on the grill, cooking for 4-5 minutes per side, or until the meat is opaque and heated through.


Once the crab is cooked, serve it with your choice of dipping sauces, such as melted butter, garlic butter, or a lemon-herb sauce. Use crab crackers or a nutcracker to crack the shells and a small fork or pick to extract the tender meat. Snow crab pairs well with side dishes like steamed vegetables, rice, or a fresh salad.


Snow crabs are not only important to their marine environment, but also for the economic benefit of fisheries. Therefore it is essential to understand its biology, distribution and role in order to maintain healthy populations. Overfishing and climate change have created a precarious situation that requires the implementation of effective conservation methods as well as further research into snow crab protection – allowing us all to enjoy this invaluable species sustainably.

Similar Posts